Tirzepatide is a synthetic antidiabetic drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is the first drug in a class of agents known as dual glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) receptor agonists 1. A patent was first applied for as a method of glycemic control using tirzepatide in early 2016. The patent was published later that year. Tirzepatide was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2022, in the European Union in September 2022, in Canada in November 2022, and in Australia in December 2022 1. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it to be a first-in-class medication 5.
GIP and GLP-1 are hormones that are involved in blood sugar control and body weight regulation. After a person has eaten, these hormones are secreted by cells of the intestines and in turn cause the secretion of insulin. Tirzepatide activates both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors, leading to improved blood sugar control and enhanced satiety 56. Tirzepatide improves body composition across a range of adult age groups, according to a new analysis of SURMOUNT-1, the first Phase 3 study of tirzepatide in adults for chronic weight management. The analysis shows that tirzepatide improves body composition across a range of adult age groups. Fat mass was reduced 33-36% and lean mass 10-11% depending upon age group. Thus, only one-quarter of the weight lost was lean mass, as has been observed in trials of diet and physical activity, resulting in an overall improvement in body composition 4. Tirzepatide also reduces appetite, energy intake, and fat mass in people 5. Moreover, Tirzepatide has been shown to improve blood pressure and to reduce Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides .
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